Adrenal glands are 2 small glands that are located above our kidneys. They have three layers, and produce multiple hormones: catecholamines, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones androgens (regulate reproduction). Adrenal glands can be affected by tumors, genetic defects, systemic illnesses, or bleeding that can lead to over/under production of the above hormones. Treatment can include surgery or medications, and generally depends on the cause of the problem.
Disorders of elevated calcium can be caused by a variety of reasons, most commonly abnormal intake of calcium or vitamin D, or abnormal production of parathyroid hormone. Often disorders of calcium metabolism are associated with kidney stones, weakening of the bones: osteoporosis in women and men, osteopenia, or abnormalities of the vitamin D metabolism. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem and may include diet, surgery, or medications.
Pituitary gland: a pea sized gland located in our brain that regulates production of multiple hormones, and regulates directly, or indirectly, all of the functions of our body. The main hormones produced or released from pituitary gland include: Growth hormone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone (regulates fertility and sex hormone production), Thyroid Stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Vasopressin, and Oxytocin. Tumors of pituitary gland or surrounding brain tissue, brain strokes, traumas, genetic defects, surgeries, or illnesses that can affect the pituitary gland, can lead to over or underproduction of the above hormones. Symptoms associated with pituitary disorders and treatment choices can vary and generally depend on the cause of the problem and what hormones are over/under produced.
Excessive testosterone production in women is associated with increased body hair growth, hirsutism, and polycystic ovarian syndrome: condition associated with infertility, sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when the function of the ovaries ceases. It can be due to natural process, medications like chemotherapy, certain medical conditions, or surgery when ovaries were removed.
Low testosterone in men, or hypogonadism, is a condition that men are born with, due to genetic conditions, or can develop due to a variety of conditions; including problems in their pituitary glands, testes, or systemic illness. After identifying the cause, treatment frequently includes administration of testosterone.